The most well known symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are nightmares, flashbacks, hypervigilance, exaggerated startle response, avoidance of triggers and dissociation.  Less obvious, though, and possibly more pervasive are the effects that PTSD has on the ability to have healthy relationships.  

Trauma is defined as experiencing an event where you perceived a serious threat to your life or someone else’s life.  Trauma survivors don’t always have PTSD, but trauma always has lasting effects on our lives and relationships.

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